[Beowulf] Woodcrest Memory bandwidth

Kozin, I (Igor) i.kozin at dl.ac.uk
Tue Aug 15 07:29:02 EDT 2006


Good point which makes perfect sense to me.
Given that the theoretical maximum is actually 21.3 GB/s
the real maximum Triad number must be 21.3/3 = 7.1 GB/s.
And that's the best number I've heard of.

Here is a pointer to some measured latencies
http://www.anandtech.com/IT/showdoc.aspx?i=2772&p=4

Incidentally, the same site dwells on low latency of Core 2
http://www.anandtech.com/cpuchipsets/showdoc.aspx?i=2795&p=5
Anybody run stream on it?


> Um, I haven't looked closely at Woodcrest lately, but everyone does
> remember that on a write, you have to fetch the cache line 
> that you are
> writing to, right?  So, if you have a 10 GB/s memory system, 
> the most a
> copy should be able to do is:
> 
> read the source at 3.3 GB/s
> read the destination at 3.3 GB/s
> write the destination at 3.3 GB/s
> 
> What streams will report is 6.6 GB/s, which, um, matches the results
> earlier in this thread.  
> 
> 					Keith
> 
> On Mon, 2006-08-14 at 19:00 -0600, Stuart Midgley wrote:
> > actually, latency determines bandwidth more than memory 
> speed...  see 
> > my rant(?) from a little over a year ago
> > 
> > http://www.beowulf.org/archive/2005-July/013294.html
> > 
> > prefetch etc. help, but the limiting factor is still 
> latency.  Hence 
> > the opterons have significantly higher real memory bandwidth (their 
> > latency is about 1/3 that of xeons/p4's etc).  If you look at the 
> > ia64's then they have even high latency again, but they can have a 
> > huge number of outstanding loads (from memory its >80), so their 
> > effective bandwidth is high.
> > 
> > Stu.
> > 
> > 
> > On 15/08/2006, at 8:10, Joe Landman wrote:
> > 
> > > Hi Stu:
> > >
> > > Stu Midgley wrote:
> > >> sorry, forgot to reply all... don't you hate gmail's interface 
> > >> sometimes?
> > >>
> > >>
> > >> What is the memory latency of the woodcrest machines?  
> Since memory
> > >> latency really determines your memory bandwidth.
> > >
> > > Hmmm...  not for large block sequential accesses.  You 
> can prefetch
> > > these assuming enough intelligence in the code generator (heh), or
> > the
> > > hardware if the memory access pattern is fairly consistent.
> > >
> > > Latency really defines the random access local node GUPS, 
> well, its
> > > really more complex than that, but roughly that.
> > >
> > > That said, I would like to measure this.  I have an old 
> code which 
> > > does
> > > this, any pointers on code other people would like me to run?  If
> > its
> > > not too hard (e.g. less than 15 minutes) I might do a few.
> > >
> > >> If Intel hasn't made any improvements in latency then the limited
> > >> number of out-standing loads in the x86-64 architecture 
> will limit 
> > >> the
> > >> bandwidth regarless of the MB/s you throw at it.
> > >
> > > Hmmm... Ok, you are implying that if your processor can 
> consume the
> > > load/store slots faster than it can launch them, and there are a 
> > > limited
> > > number of memory operations in flight (2? as I remember, not 
> > > looking at
> > > my notes now), it is going to be load-store pipeline limited, not
> > > necessarily "bandwidth".  That is, the memory system would be
> > > significantly faster than the CPU can consume.
> > >
> > > I haven't looked closely at the Woodcrest arch yet.  Don't know
> > > precisely what they are doing here and how it differs from AMD.
> > Would
> > > be interesting.  So far I haven't been impressed with code that I
> > > thought I should be really impressed with on this machine.  Oddly
> > the
> > > performance was about what we got out of the Core Duo on this 
> > > platform.
> > >
> > 
> > 
> > --
> > Dr Stuart Midgley
> > Industry Uptake Program Leader
> > iVEC, 'The hub of advanced computing in Western Australia'
> > 26 Dick Perry Avenue, Technology Park
> > Kensington WA 6151
> > Australia
> > 
> > Phone: +61 8 6436 8545
> > Fax: +61 8 6436 8555
> > Email: industry at ivec.org
> > WWW:  http://www.ivec.org
> > 
> > 
> > 
> > _______________________________________________
> > Beowulf mailing list, Beowulf at beowulf.org
> > To change your subscription (digest mode or unsubscribe) visit
> > http://www.beowulf.org/mailman/listinfo/beowulf
> > 
> > 
> > 
> -- 
> Keith D. Underwood                            Scalable 
> Computing Systems
> Senior Member of Technical Staff            Sandia National 
> Laboratories
> kdunder at sandia.gov
> 
> 
> _______________________________________________
> Beowulf mailing list, Beowulf at beowulf.org
> To change your subscription (digest mode or unsubscribe) 
> visit http://www.beowulf.org/mailman/listinfo/beowulf
> 

_______________________________________________
Beowulf mailing list, Beowulf at beowulf.org
To change your subscription (digest mode or unsubscribe) visit http://www.beowulf.org/mailman/listinfo/beowulf



More information about the Beowulf mailing list