Lab to sample Linux for weapons work
eugen at leitl.org
Thu Sep 26 09:49:39 EDT 2002
Lab to sample Linux for weapons work
By Stephen Shankland
Staff Writer, CNET News.com
September 23, 2002, 4:50 PM PT
Los Alamos National Laboratory is buying a $6 million, 2,048-processor
Linux supercomputer to run its nuclear weapons simulation software, an
effort that will test the limits of these less expensive megamachines.
The lab has been a pioneer in building inexpensive supercomputers made out
of ordinary computing components and the Linux operating system. Thus far,
however, LANL's nuclear weapons simulation software runs on more expensive
systems from SGI and Hewlett-Packard such as HP's $215 million "Q" now
A $6 million price tag may sound like a bargain in comparison, but
software must be reworked to run using less expensive clusters of Linux
machines. Though the new system will run unclassified programs such as
predicting the properties of new materials, those tests will serve as a
proxy to predict how well nuclear weapons simulation software works, said
lab spokesman Jim Danneskiold.
The lab's central mission is ensuring that U.S. nuclear weapons will work
as planned, despite aging and the current ban on actual nuclear tests.
LANL has software that simulates the physical effects such as the extreme
pressure and intense X-rays that accompany nuclear explosions.
Intel-based supercomputers are becoming less exotic, having escaped
academia and found buyers in the private sector such as Companie General
de Geophysique for oil and gas exploration work and MTU Aero Engine for
The new system, called the "Science Appliance" and built by Salt Lake
City-based Linux NetworX, uses a cluster of 1,024 interconnected servers,
each with two 2.4GHz Intel Xeon processors. It's a close relative to
another cluster at LANL's sister laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National
The Science Appliance, due by the end of the year, will be capable of a
peak computational speed of 10 trillion calculations per second, Linux
NetworX said. The computing nodes will be stacked 50 to a rack, with 27
racks taking up a patch of floor space about 18 by 25 feet. The nodes are
connected with a high-speed switch from Myricom.
There are future expansion options in the LANL deal, said Clark Roundy,
vice president of marketing at Linux NetworX.
There's a major difference compared with Livermore system, though: The Los
Alamos machine has no hard drives. Instead, each computer fires up using
software pulled over the network with the assistance of software called
LinuxBIOS developed by LANL programmer Ron Minnich and others. LinuxBIOS
also dramatically speeds the startup process to about two seconds, said
Jason Lowry, Linux NetworX's product manager for cluster management tools.
Shunning hard drives cuts cost and power consumption, but more
importantly, it improves reliability, Roundy said.
"If you think about what things are going to fail in a system, it's the
hard disk or fan or power supply or something with moving parts," Roundy
Linux NetworX could benefit greatly from convincing the Los Alamos and
Livermore labs that Linux clusters are worthwhile. The labs are funded by
the Energy Department's Advanced Simulation and Computing program, which
has spent hundreds of millions of dollars to advance supercomputing using
machines made of comparatively inexpensive components.
The DOE program has underwritten many of the world's fastest computers,
according to university researchers who monitor raw calculation speed at
the Top500 organization. The program has underwritten Nos. 2, 6, 7, 9, 11,
and 15 on the most recent ranking.
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